Quote Time – Leonardo da Vinci

„Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication




The main interest of this lesson is the word sophistication. What does it mean?
The word sophistication means:

  • being advanced and complex, for example, sophisticated machines, a sophisticated idea
  • being well-educated, knowing a lot about issues regarded as socially important, for example, a sophisticated person,


  • elegance
  • cosmopolitanism
  • refinement
  • worldliness


  • simplicity
  • crudeness

Word formation:

  • sophistication [noun], for example, I may lack the sophistication of a well-educated woman.
  • to sophisticate [verb]
  • sophisticated [adjective], for example, Such a sophisticated alarm system was not developed overnight.
  • sophisticatedly [adverb], for example, The system is sophisticatedly designed.


Do you know in which year Stuxnet, the most sophisticated computer worm, was discovered?

a) 2011
b) 2009
c) 2010

The answer is c. It was developed to attack industrial PLCs. It affected a number of control systems technologies in facilities around the world.






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